'Python: get all months in range?

I want to get all months between now and August 2010, as a list formatted like this:

['2010-08-01', '2010-09-01', .... , '2016-02-01']

Right now this is what I have:

months = []
for y in range(2010, 2016):
    for m in range(1, 13):
        if (y == 2010) and m < 8:
        if (y == 2016) and m > 2:
        month = '%s-%s-01' % (y, ('0%s' % (m)) if m < 10 else m)

What would be a better way to do this?

Solution 1:[1]

dateutil.relativedelta is handy here.

I've left the formatting out as an exercise.

from dateutil.relativedelta import relativedelta
import datetime

result = []

today = datetime.date.today()
current = datetime.date(2010, 8, 1)    

while current <= today:
    current += relativedelta(months=1)

Solution 2:[2]

I had a look at the dateutil documentation. Turns out it provides an even more convenient way than using dateutil.relativedelta: recurrence rules (examples)

For the task at hand, it's as easy as

from dateutil.rrule import *
from datetime import date

months = map(
    rrule(MONTHLY, dtstart=date(2010, 8, 1), until=date.today())

The fine print

Note that we're cheating a little bit, here. The elements dateutil.rrule.rrule produces are of type datetime.datetime, even if we pass dtstart and until of type datetime.date, as we do above. I let map feed them to date's isoformat function, which just turns out to convert them to strings as if it were just dates without any time-of-day information.

Therefore, the seemingly equivalent list comprehension

    for day in rrule(MONTHLY, dtstart=date(2010, 8, 1), until=date.today())]

would return a list like


Thus, if we want to use a list comprehension instead of map, we have to do something like

    for dt in rrule(MONTHLY, dtstart=date(2010, 8, 1), until=date.today())]

Solution 3:[3]

use datetime and timedelta standard Python's modules - without installing any new libraries

from datetime import datetime, timedelta

now = datetime(datetime.now().year, datetime.now().month, 1)
ctr = datetime(2010, 8, 1)
list = [ctr.strftime('%Y-%m-%d')]

while ctr <= now:
    ctr += timedelta(days=32)
    list.append( datetime(ctr.year, ctr.month, 1).strftime('%Y-%m-%d') )

I'm adding 32 days to enter new month every time (longest months has 31 days)

Solution 4:[4]

It's seems like there's a very simple and clean way to do this by generating a list of dates and subsetting to take only the first day of each month, as shown in the example below.

import datetime
import pandas as pd

start_date = datetime.date(2010,8,1)
end_date = datetime.date(2016,2,1)

date_range = pd.date_range(start_date, end_date)
date_range = date_range[date_range.day==1]


Solution 5:[5]

You could reduce the number of if statements to two lines instead of four lines because having a second if statement that does the same thing with the previous if statement is a bit redundant.

if (y == 2010 and m < 8) or (y == 2016 and m > 2):

Solution 6:[6]

I don't know whether it's better, but an approach like the following might be considered more 'pythonic':

months = [
    '{}-{:0>2}-01'.format(year, month)
        for year in xrange(2010, 2016 + 1)
        for month in xrange(1, 12 + 1)
        if not (year <= 2010 and month < 8 or year >= 2016 and month > 2)

The main differences here are:

  • As we want the iteration(s) to produce a list, use a list comprehension instead of aggregating list elements in a for loop.
  • Instead of explicitly making a distinction between numbers below 10 and numbers 10 and above, use the capabilities of the format specification mini-language for the .format() method of str to specify
  • xrange instead of range returns a generator instead of a list, so that the iteration values can be produced as they're being consumed and don't have to be held in memory. (Doesn't matter for ranges this small, but it's a good idea to get used to this in Python 2.) Note: In Python 3, there is no xrange and the range function already returns a generator instead of a list.
  • Make the + 1 for the upper bounds explicit. This makes it easier for human readers of the code to recognize that we want to specify an inclusive bound to a method (range or xrange) that treats the upper bound as exclusive. Otherwise, they might wonder what's the deal with the number 13.

Solution 7:[7]

I got another way using datetime, timedelta and calender:

from calendar import monthrange
from datetime import datetime, timedelta

def monthdelta(d1, d2):
    delta = 0
    while True:
        mdays = monthrange(d1.year, d1.month)[1]
        d1 += timedelta(days=mdays)
        if d1 <= d2:
            delta += 1
    return delta

start_date = datetime(2016, 1, 1)
end_date = datetime(2016, 12, 1)

num_months = [i-12 if i>12 else i for i in range(start_date.month, monthdelta(start_date, end_date)+start_date.month+1)]
monthly_daterange = [datetime(start_date.year,i, start_date.day, start_date.hour) for i in num_months]

Solution 8:[8]

A different approach that doesn't require any additional libraries, nor nested or while loops. Simply convert your dates into an absolute number of months from some reference point (it can be any date really, but for simplicity we can use 1st January 0001). For example

abs_months = a.year * 12 + a.month

Once you have a number representing the month you are in you can simply use range to loop over the months, and then convert back:

Solution to the generalized problem:

import datetime

def range_of_months(start_date, end_date):
    months = []
    for i in range(start_date.year * 12 + start_date.month, end_date.year*12+end_date.month + 1)
        months.append(datetime.date((i-13) // 12 + 1, (i-1) % 12 + 1, 1))
    return months

Additional Notes/explanation:

Here // divides rounding down to the nearest whole number, and % 12 gives the remainder when divided by 12, e.g. 13 % 12 is 1.

(Note also that in the above date.year *12 + date.month does not give the number of months since the 1st of January 0001. For example if date = datetime.datetime(1,1,1), then date.year * 12 + date.month gives 13. If I wanted to do the actual number of months I would need to subtract 1 from the year and month, but that would just make the calculations more complicated. All that matters is that we have a consistent way to convert to and from some integer representation of what month we are in.)

Solution 9:[9]

fresh pythonic one-liner from me

from dateutil.relativedelta import relativedelta
import datetime

[(start_date + relativedelta(months=+m)).isoformat() 
    for m in range(0, relativedelta(start_date, end_date).months+1)] 

Solution 10:[10]

In case you don't have any months duplicates and they are in correct order you can get what you want with this.

from datetime import date, timedelta

first = date.today()
last = first + timedelta(weeks=20)
date_format = "%Y-%m"

results = []

while last >= first:
    last -= timedelta(days=last.day)


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Source: Stack Overflow

Solution Source
Solution 1 Ani
Solution 2
Solution 3
Solution 4 MatAff
Solution 5 Sean Francis N. Ballais
Solution 6 das-g
Solution 7 dl.meteo
Solution 8
Solution 9 alex9311
Solution 10 parfeniukink